Notes on the Christian features of the Queen of Canada

A project by Sherwin | started in the summer of 2014 | last updated on Friday, October 30th, 2015


This is a collection of notes and thoughts relating to my hypotheses that:

1.0 the Queen of England is Christian,
1.1 the Queen of England is necessarily Christian,
2.0 the Queen of Canada is Christian,
2.1 the Queen of Canada is necessarily Christian,
3.0 the Crown of Canada is Christian,
3.1 the Crown of Canada is necessarily Christian.

Initial thoughts

There is generally wide acceptance of 1.0 and 1.1. Thesis 2.0, that the Queen of Canada is Christian, is more controversial, although many will have no trouble with this. Thesis 2.1 is still stronger and more controversial. Interestingly, it’s obvious to some – however, others will consider it outré.

Thesis 3.0 and 3.1 are possibly more controversial. Interestingly, people who agree with 3.0 would probably have no trouble with 3.1.

Also, given that the Queen is a living manifestation of the Crown of Canada, it seems plausible that 2.0 is true if and only if 3.0 is true. Think of it this way. The Queen of Canada is a person with a set of social, cultural and legal features who just happens to be “synonymous with” the crown: “the Sovereign and Crown are a single corporate entity.”1

So 2.0 is true if and only if 3.0 is true. And 2.1 is true if and only if 3.1 is true. We could call this the Synonymy Corollary.

If it all feels a little bit how-many-angels-can-dance-on-a-head-of-a-pin, I sympathize. Nonetheless, the Christian nature of the Crown is fascinating, and I think, important.

A quick note on the meaning of necessity

When I contend that the Queen of Canada is necessarily Christian, I am saying that this is not a contingent fact; it’s not be accident or happenstance. The fact of her Christianity is by design. It is, in other words, structural.

This means that my claim will generalize to the sovereign, or monarch, of Canada, whether they are a Queen or King.

In the language of modal logic and many worlds, we might say that that in every world where there is a Queen of Canada, the Queen is Christian. Or, equivalently, there is no world in which there is a Queen of Canada that is not Christian. I include this to help the reader imagine what necessity means – not to marry myself to this model of modal logic.

Another way to think of the meaning of “necessarily Christian” is this: if the Queen of Canada wasn’t Christian, she wouldn’t be the Queen of Canada. Like, if a game of hockey didn’t have some kind of puck, it wouldn’t be hockey. You know, you can have hockey without ice, without keeping score, without goalies or without referees. You can have hockey with a tennis ball or even an imagined hockey puck. But you can’t have hockey without some kind of puck. It’s a necessary feature. Without it, you don’t have hockey.

A quick note on the meanings of “the Queen of Canada”

There are many meanings of “the Queen of Canada.” Obviously, as I write this, the Queen of Canada actually refers to a person, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. But beyond this, “the Queen of Canada” has a cultural meaning, and a political meaning, and a legal meaning.

Because of this complexity in the meaning, some will suggest that my project is flawed. I’m sympathetic with this. Despite the fact that I do not currently have a working definition of “the Queen of Canada” I think it’s reasonable to pursue thesis 2.0 and 2.1.

It may prove prudent to further distinguish further theses in relation to the various meanings of “the Queen of Canada.” 2.1.1 could be, for example, that the Queen of Canada (in the legal sense) is necessarily Christian.

For the purposes of my project, I think I need only recognize that:

1. there are many meanings of “the Queen of Canada”
2. the various meanings, legal and otherwise, are up for debate and discussion,
3. some of the meanings of “the Queen of Canada” are controversial and up for considerable academic debate,
4. some of the meanings of “the Queen of Canada” are a matter of public record and broad academic consensus,
5. these are matters of truth and falsehood, uncertainty, vagueness, and precision,
6. my theses strike at the heart of the question of meaning of “Queen of Canada”, and so requiring a definition to start my project is too high a bar,
7. further definitions, or at least elucidations, may present themselves (hopefully) in the course of my project,
8. it’s best to pursue the broadest and strongest notion of “the Queen of Canada.”

FAQ

What do you mean when you say that the Crown is Christian?

This is a good question. It’s a question at the heart of this research, which is developing. I can say a few things about this now.

The first is that I think it’s reasonable to look to other kinds of things that are widely known to be Christian. For example, if a person is Christian, how do we know? Can we know even if they don’t self-identify? What are the features? Now obviously there’s a difference between an individual and a whole institution, like the Crown. So we might look at another institution that is known to be Christian, like the Salvation Army. How do we know they’re Christian? What are the signals? What are the visual cues? What in their behaviour is Christian? Now the SA is perhaps too obvious, what about other organizations?

The second thing is that I think it’s instructive to look at other kinds of monarchies, or comparable fictional centers of state authority, that are religious, Christian or otherwise, or which are explicitly atheist. How do we know that they are religious in a particular way? How do we know that the center is atheist?

Put another way, figuring out “what is Christian” requires that we develop a theory, or criteria, by looking first at clear examples of what is and what is not Christian. This allows us then to look at unclear cases, such as the Queen and Crown of Canada.

How will you know if your hypotheses are false?

This is a good question – I’m still working this out. See above. In the course of developing a theory for “is Christian”, I’ll also find falsification criteria.

Did you know that we have no state church in Canada?

Yes.

Did you know that Canada protects the human right to freedom of religion?

yes.

Did you know that Canada has a separation of church and state?

Yes. Although, it’s not a zero or one. It’s more and less. And if my hypotheses are correct, then there could be more separation. Put another way, I know we have a mostly secular government and a mostly secular Crown. But I wish these institutions were more secular.

It’s obvious that your hypotheses are all false; why are you wasting time on this?

It’s not obvious to me, I guess. And I’m not alone.

It’s obvious that your hypotheses are all true; why are you wasting time on this?

Huh. Well. It’s not obvious to everyone (see above). And it’s not obvious to me that I’m right. For example, my interest in the Christianity stuff has some of the markers of a grand conspiracy. So that’s troubling.

Are you sure this matters? Like who cares if you’re even right?

This issue matters, in part, because of the broad interest and also cultural significance of the Canadian monarchy. More specifically, this matters because of recent legal decisions relating to the requirement of aspiring citizens to give an oath to the Queen. This issue matters to me because I’m an atheist and I don’t want Christianity .

The Queen of Canada is thought to be a living embodiment of the Crown. The Crown, in turn, is a kind of imaginary centre of power and authority. The imaginary centre is fictional, in the same way that a centre of gravity is a useful fiction. But the power and authority are very real.

I think there is a reasonable expectation that those who have to give an oath to the centre of state power (like members of parliament, officers of the law, millitary personnel, and new citizens), should be able to do so without having to swear an oath to one that is Christian.

Even if there is no legal requirement to accommodate oath takers who do not want to swear to a Christian Queen, or a Christian Crown, it would nonetheless be culturally alienating and could require a social-political, if not a legal, solution.


Table of contents

#1. The Great Seal of Canada is Christian.
#2. The visual representation of the Crown of Canada is Christian.
#3. The Royal Coat of Arms for Canada is Christian.
#4. Every Coat of Arms ever used by Canada’s Monarch has been Christian.
#5. The Order of Canada is Christian.
#6. The highest honours that Canada can bestow are Christian crosses.
#7. The Governor General is a Christian.
#8. Every Governor General ever has been a Christian.
#9. Queen Elizabeth II also happens to be the head of the Church of England.
#10. Every Monarch in the history of Canada has been Christian.
#11. A crown is a Christian symbol.
#12. Canada does not have a state religion as a social and political accommodation to Catholicism.
#13. The motto of Canada is Christian.
#14. The Queen of Canada’s official title is Christian.
#15. The Queen has two official chapel’s in Canada, both of which are Christian.
#16. The Constitutional Act of 1791 was understood by Anglicans of Upper Canada, that their church was the state church.
#17. Everyone I ask, claims that the Queen of Canada is Christian.
#18. When the Queen of Canada addresses her subjects, in her official capacity as Queen, she regularly invokes Christian blessings, and Christian references.
#19. Talk of souls may be more than metaphorical.
#20. St. Edward’s Crown can be found across many instances of organizations of state power.
#21. There are several Christian components of the Queen of the royal crown which forms the main component of the Queen’s Royal Cyper.
#22. Every single year, since 1932, the Queen has delivered a speech at Christmas, to the commonwealth.
#23. This legal decision handed down in Ontario is actually very relevant and interesting.
#24. The mace, through which the power of the Crown is instantiated in Parliament and provincial legislatures, is Christian.
#25. Maces are, generally, a traditional weapon of the Christian clergy.
#26. Maces in Canada, are specifically Christian.
#27. The orb, or globe, that sits below the cross, on crowns and maces is also interesting in it’s own right.
#28. The Queen of Canada had a very Christian coronation; anointed by a priest, at a 1000 year old church.
#29. The narration at the end of the NFB coronation documentary tells the social cultural story of Christianity in monarchy.
#30. The oath that the Queen of Canada took in 1953.
#31. The Queen’s relationship to Catholicism is interesting.
#32. Before Canada was Canada, Canada was the dominion of Canada.
#33. Sculpture of the Queen of Canada in the centre of the Library of Parliament demonstrates her Christian nature.
#34. It’s claimed widely that the Queen of Canada has no official Christian role.
#35. Common fallacious argument: Canada has no state religion, therefore the Queen has no religious role in Canada.
#36. Another common fallacy of reasoning from the freedom of religion.
#37. Fallacious argument from secular nature of the Canadian Government.
#38. Fallacious argument invoking Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent.
#39. The Act of Settlement of 1701 is an important legal and cultural document that helps establish the monarchy of England, and Canada, as Christian.
#40. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms invokes “God” in the preamble.
#41. The Canadian National Anthem refers to God.
#42. The Royal Anthem of Canada is God Save the Queen.
#43. Other important songs that form part of the Canadian identity are also Christian.
#44. Idea: every state funeral in the history of Canada has been Christian.
#45. Every Prime Minister in the history of Canada has been a Christian.
#46. Major Canadian locations are named after Saints, like the St. Lawrence River.
#47. Major Canadian holidays are Christian, such as Christmas and Easter.
#48. Argument from Constitutional documents.
#49. The argument from absence of references to secularity in our constitutional documents.
#50. The argument from the absence of explicit reference to secularity in government.
#51. The Royal Union Flag, aka the Union Jack, is Christian and Canadian.
#52. The Canadian Flag has Christian components.
#53. Every single Royal in the history of Canada has been Christian.
#54. The visual cues of our various official military insignias are Christian.
#55. The architecture of the prominent government buildings is Christian.
#56. The Salvation Army is very much a part of the Canadian Military apparatus, and the Salvation Army is Christian
#57. The History of the Red Cross and the emblems of the Red Cross is actually really interesting and relevant.
#58. The poem, In Flanders Fields, a crucial part of Canadian Heritage, is a set in a distinctly Christian context.
#59. Many aspects of World War I, are related to Canada’s identity as a Christian nation.
#60. The history of the Canadian Memorial Church demonstrates the Christian nature of the Crown.
#61. The Book of Remembrance is Christian.
#62. The Peace Tower, a symbol of the Nation and the government, and possibly the Crown, is Christian.
#63. The argument from the absence of other religious icons and signifiers.
#yy. Next next.

Notes and datapoints

#1. The Great Seal of Canada is Christian.

The Great Seal of Canada is a kind of legal stamp of approval. Bills become laws when they get the stamp of royal assent. The Great Seal more or less belongs to the Queen of Canada.

It’s covered in Christian icons. And, importantly, it doesn’t have icons from other religions.

#2. The visual representation of the Crown of Canada is Christian.

Simple Crown of Canada

#3. The Royal Coat of Arms for Canada is Christian.

Our Coat of Arms is a kind of symbol of our sovereign nation. You can find this symbol on official documents, including those coming from the Supreme Court.

Before we were sovereign, we used the Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom. And then we confederated and adopted our own. When there’s a new sovereign of Canada we’ll get a new Coat of Arms.

Most importantly, the Queen of Canada is the person/entity/legal-fiction/office entitled to use the Coat of Arms. So when we see the Coat of Arms at the top of a court document, it’s because the Queen of Canada authorized it. The Queen of Canada is its armiger.

At the very top of the symbol is St. Edward’s Crown. He’s a Christian.

At the very top of St. Edward’s Crown is a Christian cross.

Actually, the entire Coat of Arms is covered in Christian icons.

Queen Elizabeth II Coat of Arms for Canada

#4. Every Coat of Arms ever used by Canada’s Monarch has been Christian.

I include this fact, lest someone thinks that Canada’s Coat of Arms is accidentally Christian.

#5. The Order of Canada is Christian.

The Order of Canada is a distinctly Monarchish phenomenon. It is a way of bestowing various degrees of honour on deserving citizens of Canada. The honour is said to flow from the honour of the Monarch. The Monarch is the source of that honour. Which is kind of interesting.

When you get an Order of Canada, it remains the property of the Crown. Which is also kind of interesting.

The Order of Canada itself has been around for a number of decades. But it recently came into more widespread social discourse during the Diamond Jubilee.

Obviously, people who aren’t Christians can receive them. But it will be equally obvious, I hope, that the Order of Canada is Christian.

The Order of Canada has multiple Christian features. The medals, for example, are all crested with the footed cross of St. Andrew’s Crown.

It’s motto comes from the Old Testament: “desiderantes meliorem patriam.” This translates to “desiring a better country,” and comes from Hebrews 11:16. This reference became connected to the Order of Canada because Anglican Reverend Herbert O’Driscoll gave a sermon on this theme and was later contacted by John Matheson, one of the central designers of the Order and himself a member of the United Church of Canada. (See The Order of Canada: Its Origins, History and Developments)

The Order of Canada Seal

The medals are designed as six-pointed snowflakes. On the medals you will find the Crown and also a maple leaf. But on the Order of Canada Seal you’ll also find symbols of four Christian jurisdictions:

  • three lions, for England
  • one lion, for Scotland
  • a harp, for Ireland
  • Fleur-di-lis, a Christian symbol, for Christian France. The Heraldry Society of Canada says that fleur-di-lis are “Christian symbols of the Trinity and of the Blessed Virgin Mary.”2

#6. The highest honours that Canada can bestow are Christian crosses.

There are two honours higher than the Order of Canada: the Cross of Valour and the Victoria Cross. The Victoria Cross is named after Canada’s first monarch.

Both awards are footed crosses. Both awards, like the Order of Canada, flow from the honour of the Queen of Canada (PDF), who is the fount of all honour and power.

http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/medals-decorations/orders-decorations/vc

#7. The Governor General is a Christian.

The Governor General of Canada is the Queen’s representative in Canada. Right now, that honour is David Johnston’s. He’s an Anglican.

#8. Every Governor General ever has been a Christian.

Sometimes the Governor General is Anglican. Sometimes the Governor General is Catholic. It looks like they might actually sort of toggle back and forth. The important point here is that every single Governor General ever has been a member of a Christian Church.

Since 1608, we’ve had a total of 71 Governor Generals. All Christian.

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#9. Queen Elizabeth II also happens to be the head of the Church of England.

The Queen of England is Queen Elizabeth II. Queen Elizabeth II is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.

#10. Every Monarch in the history of Canada has been Christian.

Every Sovereign in the history of Canada has been Christian. Every Sovereign of Canada has also happened to be the head of the Church of England.

Interestingly, if allow ourselves to go back a little further to the years before Canada became Canada, it turns out hat many Sovereigns were not the head of the Church of England.

Since 1534, there have been 32 monarchs in total. 9 were French. 19 were British. That’s kind of interesting. 4 were Canadian.

While not all of them were the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, they were all Christian.

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#11. A crown is a Christian symbol.

The Greeks had crowns. Crowns are also referred to repeatedly in the Old Testament.

But crowns are also a prominent Christian symbol.

Jesus himself is referred to as the king of kings. Most importantly, in art and literature, a crown is recognized as a symbol of eternal life.

In A Handbook of Symbols in Christian Art, by Gertrude Grace Sill (Simon and Schuster, 2011) a crown is a symbol of “saintly attribute” and “victory over sin and death”:

Crown: Emblem of victory, honor, sovereignty, the sign of royalty. As a saintly attribute, the crown denotes royal blood or victory over sin and death. A wreath is another form of a crown.

See also heraldic meanings of crown symbols.

#12. Canada does not have a state religion as a social and political accommodation to Catholicism.

In England, the Church of England is their state church. In Canada, we don’t have one of these. This fact leads some to believe that our head of state can’t be Christian. But this is false.

I contend that the main reason we don’t have a state religion is that we’ve had to accommodate both Anglicanism and Catholicism and choosing just one would have been politically untenable.

Before we had an English Monarch, pre-Canada had a French Monarch. See for example this rendering: “Jacques Cartier raises the Arms of Francis I of France at Gaspe in 1534.”

But, whether Catholic or Anglican, our monarch has always been Christian.

#13. The motto of Canada is Christian.

The motto of Canada is Latin, “a mari usque ad mare” and translates to “From sea to sea.” It’s from Psalm 72:8, in the Christian bible.

This motto figures prominently on the Coat of Arms and other important Canadian symbols.

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#14. The Queen of Canada’s official title is Christian.

The title of the Queen of Canada is a legal title and was a matter of significant political wrangling. The Queen’s full title is:

By the Grace of God of the United Kingdom, Canada and Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_realm#Religious_role_of_the_monarch

Hmm, I also found this instance of the official title, with a subtle difference:

English: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom, Canada and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith

French: Elizabeth Deux, par la grâce de Dieu Reine du Royaume-Uni, du Canada et de ses autres royaumes et territoires, Chef du Commonwealth, Défenseur de la Foi

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fidei_defensor

Most (all?) of our coins say “D.G. Regina” or “by the Grace of God, Queen.”

Some have argued that “God” and “faith” refer to generic religions or agnosticism. This is bogus.

Clearly, it refers to a single God, so that rules out most religions.

Similarly, one can’t say it’s agnostic, since it is clearly positing a deity.

It obviously rules out atheism. Given that the Queen is the head of a Christian church, and given that Christmas is a holiday recognized by Canadian law, it would be intellectually dishonest to suggest that the Queen of Canada’s official title refers to anything other than a Christian God.

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#15. The Queen has two official chapel’s in Canada, both of which are Christian.

The Queen has six royal chapels outside of England. Two are in Canada. The first and oldest royal chapel is the first Anglican church built in Upper Canada. The second Royal Chapel is also Anglican.

#16. The Constitutional Act of 1791 was understood by Anglicans of Upper Canada, that their church was the state church.

More needed here. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglican_Church_of_Canada

#17. Everyone I ask, claims that the Queen of Canada is Christian.

Try this. It’s an excellent way to take a temperature reading of the, er, social imaginary as it relates to monarchy.

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#18. When the Queen of Canada addresses her subjects, in her official capacity as Queen, she regularly invokes Christian blessings, and Christian references.

“…one of the strongest and most valued assets of the Crown is the stability and continuity it can bring from the past into the present. My mother once said that this country felt like a “home away from home” for The Queen of Canada. Ladies and gentlemen, six decades later — it still does… and it is good to be back… Et que Dieu bénisse le Canada (May God bless Canada).” – Queen Elizabeth II Regina, Saskatchewan, May 2005

“As I now address you here for the first time, I will call to your memory the words of the earlier Elizabeth, when, more than three centuries ago, she spoke from her heart, to the Speaker and Members of her last Parliament and said ‘Though God hath raised me high, yet this I count to the glory of my Crown — that I have reigned with your loves.’ Now, here in the New World, I say to you that it is my wish that in the years before me I may so reign in Canada and be so remembered.” – Queen Elizabeth II Speech from the Throne, Ottawa, Ontario October 1957 – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ul5IaIcmJ_g and http://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/queen-elizabeth-opens-parliament-in-1957

QEII reads from The Pilgrim’s Progress and closes by wishing that 1958 will bring God’s blessing. Christmas Broadcast, December 25, 1957, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mBRP-o6Q85s

#19. Talk of souls may be more than metaphorical.

This section is muddled.

“In the one system [a monarchy] the soul of the nation is emphasized, in the other [a republic] merely the fact of a government…” – Frank MacKinnon, The Crown in Canada 1976

Many atheists refer to souls because it’s a common metaphor for essence, or nature. But in a Christian cultural and political milieu, talk of souls can be much more. But when? How do we know? Here’s Robertson Davies invoking “consecrated spirits” to explain the Crown.

In a government like ours, the Crown is the abiding and unshakable element in government; politicians may come and go, but the Crown remains and certain aspects of our system pertain to it which are not dependent on any political party. In this sense, the Crown is the consecrated spirit of Canada. Robertson Davies Introduction to Hunting Stuart and the Voice of the People, 1994 pg. 26 http://canadiancrown.gc.ca/DAMAssetPub/DAM-CRN-jblDmt-dmdJbl/STAGING/texte-text/crnMpls_1336157759317_eng.pdf?WT.contentAuthority=4.4.4

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#20. St. Edward’s Crown can be found across many instances of organizations of state power.

St. Edward’s Crown (with the orb, footed cross, Fleur de Lis) is at the crest of many insignias for organizations of considerable state power, including:

  1. RCMP
  2. OPP
  3. CSIS

Numerous insignias of state authority with St. Edwards Cross at the crest.

#21. There are several Christian components of the Queen of the royal crown which forms the main component of the Queen’s Royal Cyper.

More needed here? Maybe not. http://canadiancrown.gc.ca/eng/1396528152676

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#22. Every single year, since 1932, the Queen has delivered a speech at Christmas, to the commonwealth.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Christmas_Message
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_royal_symbols

#23. This legal decision handed down in Ontario is actually very relevant and interesting.

http://www.ontariocourts.ca/decisions/2014/2014ONCA0578.htm

This legal decision admits in several instances that the Queen is indeed Christian. However, no substantive infringement of Charter Rights is found to occur during the Oath to the Queen, and so therefore the decision could be taken to mean, roughly, that the Oath is not Christian enough to warrant protection. In fact, in a fascinating reversal of logic, the decision seems to suggest that granting of an accommodation to the Oath would make it discriminatory:

[112]    Third, he held that the appellants’ desired remedy, accommodation of their subjective religious beliefs by making the oath optional, would itself undermine the values enshrined in s. 2(a) of the Charter because it would de-secularize the oath and discriminate in favour of one religion.

It could be that the case for the Christian nature of the Queen was simply not well argued.

However, it could also be that the Oath to the Queen does not discriminate, even if the Queen is necessarily Christian. That is, the courts could, in principal, agree that the Queen of Canada is Christian by design, and yet still determine that the Oath to the Queen is secular.

This would be unfortunate, because the Oath would alienate, rather than unite, citizens.

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#24. The mace, through which the power of the Crown is instantiated in Parliament and provincial legislatures, is Christian.

The cross and orb at the top of the mace in parliament

The mace used in the House of Commons is “the pre-eminent symbol fo the authority of Parliament.” (http://www.revparl.ca/english/issue.asp?param=89&art=336, August 30th 2014.)

The Mace of the House of Commons has a cross at the very top of it. Most of the provincial ones do as well. It is the beginning and ending of every Parliament. It is a central symbol of the safety and security of the parliament. And it has a cross at the top of it.

As David Monaghan, Curator of the House of Commons Heritage Collection, writes, it “symbolizes the authority of the Speaker and the right conferred on the Commons by the Crown to meet and pass laws.”

It is, in other words, a symbol of the power transferred from the crown to members of parliament so they can govern. This is more or less the reason why it’s a royalist tradition and maces are much less in use in republics.

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#25. Maces are, generally, a traditional weapon of the Christian clergy.

Very generally, according to the Canadian Parliamentary Review, the mace was the weapon of choice for Christian bishops. The reason, is that scripture made the use of the sword forbidden for clergy. Apparently, “live the sword, die by the sword” meant that bludgeoning one without cutting them was holier. http://www.revparl.ca/english/issue.asp?param=89&art=336]

“The mace was an ideal weapon, it allowed the priests to accept a literal interpretation of these restrictions while leaving them with the ability to dispatch, with a good clean dent in the skull, their enemies of this world safely into the next without shedding blood. Maces are depicted in the famous Bayeux Tapestry being carried by William, Duke of Normandy, and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux. The Mace continued as a weapon until the late 16th century, though later examples seem to have been carried more as a sign of rank.”

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#26. Maces in Canada, are specifically Christian.

It’s especially informative to read the Honourable Charles Clarke’s exposition, “The Mace and Its Use” from August 1881, from Rose-Belford’s Canadian Monthly and National Review.

Indeed, every essay in this collection is fascinating. Heathens, to these learned essayists, are barbarians; only Christians have a hope of civilization.

Clarke’s passion and reverence for the mace is clear, as is his derision for provinces which at that time, did not employ a mace (or a mace of appropriate stature) in their legislature.  And though he makes mention of both pre-Christian Scandinavia and the Greeks, the vast majority of his essay ties the mace to Christian-Europe. The mace, according to Clarke is a symbol employed by royalists. He spends much of his essay, for example, describing how American republicans, not unlike Cromwell himself, seem to eschew the mace. Upon taking control of the Commonwealth in 1653, Cromwell, apparently, is said to have exclaimed in regard to the mace:

‘Take away the bauble! Ye are no longer a Parliament. The Lord has done with you. He has chosen other instruments for carrying on his work.’3

The current mace of the House of Commons is inscribed with the royal cypher. Importantly, our mace is designed as a very similar version of the one that is used by the British House of Commons. And, of course, it’s covered in Christian iconography like the cross and the Fleur de Lis.

  • http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/House/collections/collection_profiles/CP_mace-e.htm
  • http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/Parliament/Education/CanadianSymbols/galleries/parliament/sen_mace-e.asp
  • http://www.revparl.ca/english/issue.asp?param=89&art=336

One icon found on the mace, that I haven’t discussed yet, is the Tudor Rose. It’s a symbol of England, but also the protestant part of England. The break with the Roman Catholic Church is part of the history of the Tudor dynasty, and the rose is a symbolic repositioning of England within the Christian world.

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#27. The orb, or globe, that sits below the cross, on crowns and maces is also interesting in it’s own right.

Both St. Edward’s Crown, and the Imperial State Crown are represented in the visual identities of the Canadian Crown. Both of these crowns have what is known as an orb right below the cross at the top. The orb and cross is a symbol of Christ’s dominion over the world.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_State_Crown

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globus_cruciger

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Commons_of_Canada

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#28. The Queen of Canada had a very Christian coronation; anointed by a priest, at a 1000 year old church.

The Queen had a coronation on June 2, 1953. To be more precise, she was anointed. By a priest. At a thousand year old church. Where St. Edward the Confessor was burried. Where St. Edward received his crown. That she would also receive.

When the Queen received the crown, she received it from a priest, in a church. Another priest orates the action for the congregation:

Queen receives the septre

“Receive this orb, set under the cross, and remember that the whole world is subject to the power and empire of Christ our redeemer.”

The orb is pretty much the point of the crown. The actual point of the crown is the cross that the orb holds about it. The orb is, by design, a religious icon that reminds the Queen that she is the Defender of the Faith for the world. The orb can be seen just under the footed cross at the very top of the crown.

Remember this is all happening at an alter. Then the Queen makes her oath, on a bible. To govern Canada.

This didn’t happen in secret. Canadians were invited. In fact, we had the largest overseas military contingent. Thousands of Canadian officers and officials and civilians were there.

Two young women line up in England to attend the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953

The Mounties were there.

The RCMP ride at Queen's coronation 1953

Canadians watched it all happen. The Queen was literally lifted up by Archbishops into the throne.

We sent military officers, and many uniformed Canadians to bear witness to this distinctly Christian coronation. Prime Minister St. Laurent was there.

I encourage everyone to watch the NFB documentary called “Canada at the Coronation.” The crown, the orb, and the cross, all play such an important role in the anointing of the Queen, that this image of the cross, orb and crown are bookends to the documentary.

See also this document by the Canadian Parliamentary review, in which it’s noted that the coronation was a “religious ceremony of consecration unique to their sovereign’s oldest realm, the United Kingdom” http://www.revparl.ca/english/issue.asp?param=160&art=287

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#29. The narration at the end of the NFB coronation documentary tells the social cultural story of Christianity in monarchy.

“Here, in the heart of the commonwealth of nations, the great sound of the multitudes shouting for the Queen, is echoed around the world. In swelling unison the thousands on parliament hill join their cheers to the mighty voice of all her realms. Theirs is the voice of free peoples, freely pledging loyalty to a common ideal, a common heritage, a common tie: ‘GOD SAVE THE QUEEN!'”

Canada at the Coronation: the end (with a giant Christian crown in the background)

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#30. The oath that the Queen of Canada took in 1953.

The oath that the Queen took during her coronation is interesting enough in it’s own right to include here. The reason is that some will argue that the coronation was Christian, but only because Elizabeth was Christian. That is, the coronation was contingently Christian. This is obviously false for many reasons, not the least of which is the history and tradition at play.

However, it’s helpful to look very particularly at the oath:

AB: Madam, is your Majesty willing to take the Oath?

QEII: I am willing.

AB: Will you solemnly promise and swear to govern the Peoples of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon, and of your Possessions and the other Territories to any of them belonging or pertaining, according to their respective laws and customs?

QEII: I solemnly promise so to do.

AB: Will you to your power cause Law and Justice, in Mercy, to be executed in all your judgements?

QEII: I will.

AB: Will you to the utmost of your power maintain the Laws of God and the true profession of the Gospel? Will you to the utmost of your power maintain in the United Kingdom the Protestant Reformed Religion established by law? Will you maintain and preserve inviolably the settlement of the Church of England, and the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government thereof, as by law established in England? And will you preserve unto the Bishops and Clergy of England, and to the Churches there committed to their charge, all such rights and privileges, as by law do or shall appertain to them or any of them?

QEII: All this I promise to do.

Then the Queen arising out of her Chair, supported as before, the Sword of State being carried before her, shall go to the Altar, and make her solemn Oath in the sight of all the people to observe the premisses: laying her right hand upon the Holy Gospel in the great Bible (which was before carried in the procession and is now brought from the Altar by the Arch-bishop, and tendered to her as she kneels upon the steps), and saying these words:

“The things which I have here before promised, I will perform and keep. So help me God.”

Then the Queen shall kiss the Book and sign the Oath.

The Queen having thus taken her Oath shall return again to her Chair, and the Bible shall be delivered to the Dean of Westminster.

The phrase that I find most revealing is this: “Will you to the utmost of your power maintain the Laws of God and the true profession of the Gospel?”

But the oath she says aloud is only one small part of the ritual. There are four hours of blessings, anointments and liturgies. To really get a sense for the sheer weight of Christian detail, take a read through this play by play of her coronation: http://www.oremus.org/liturgy/coronation/cor1953b.html

This phrase is not qualified by “in England” as many of the other phrases are. As such, this is evidence that she has Christian duties that extend beyond her duties as the head of the Church of England.

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#31. The Queen’s history with Catholicism in Canada is fascinating.

In the “Royal Visit,” the NFB documents the first landing of any Monarch on Canadian soil. In 1939 King George VI and Queen Elizabeth begin their visit in Quebec City. I don’t know why this is a surprise to me. It makes sense. “Their natural tongue is French, but their coats are British scarlet.” Masterful.

Another great documentary by the NFB is called “The Queen in Canada, 1964.” On October the 6th, the Queen landed in Charlottetown to commemorate confederation, and also, a month later, the meeting that took place in Quebec City. These meetings, apparently, resulted in the “founding of Canada.”

I was interested to see the Queen travel to Quebec City, and address their “legislature” in French. That was a nice overture to Catholicism.

At the citadel, the Queen witnesses a military display by the Royal 22nd. Later she would visit the war memorial, lay a Christian wreath (by virtue of the cross and crown with cross) and talk with veterans and silver crossed mothers. The ceremony itself is at the cenotaph.

See #12.

More needed here.

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#32. Before Canada was Canada, Canada was the dominion of Canada.

Before Canada was seen as a sovereign nation4, Canada was seen as a dominion. It’s confusing because often a “dominion” is meant to refer to a sovereign nation. That said, the term “dominion” was much more prominent for the eighty or so years after confederation. Gradually, the language of dominion faded. One national police force (the only one?), for example, was the Dominion Police. In 1920 they merged into the RCMP. What was Dominion Day, has been Canada Day since 1982.

Dominion of Canada postcard from 1905

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#33. Sculpture of the Queen of Canada in the centre of the Library of Parliament demonstrates her Christian nature.

If there is any question of the Christian nature of the Canadian Queen, consider the following sculpture in the centre of the Library of Parliament. It is said to represent “the role of the sovereign in Canada.”

http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/Parliament/Education/CanadianSymbols/printall_e.pdf
http://www.parl.gc.ca/about/parliament/education/searchingforsymbols/SymbolsGallery-e.asp

No one looking at this sculpture would have any doubt of the Christian nature of the Canadian Sovereign. She bears a crown covered in crosses. She bears a sceptre with a crown, orb and cross at it’s top.

The sceptre is a symbol of the holy authority of the Monarch. The orb and cross, or globus cruciger, are a symbol of Christ’s dominion over the world. This symbol relates directly to the Monarch’s role as “defender of the faith.”

Sculpture of the Queen Victoria in the Library of Parliament

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#34. It’s claimed widely that the Queen of Canada has no official Christian role.

It’s a common refrain by some political types that the Queen of Canada is only accidentally Christian and that she “has no religious role in Canada.”

The Queen has no religious role in Canada. However, Canada’s Parliament chose to include the phrase “Defender of the Faith” in the monarch’s title in 1953. Though it stems from history, today it can be taken to signify the Crown’s role in protecting freedom of religion. The Queen usually worships at an Anglican Church (except in Scotland where she is a member of the Church of Scotland) just like anyone else who might seek out a mosque, temple or church of their own faith. However, The Queen’s role with the Church of England is only of consequence in Great Britain. In Canada, she plays no role in promoting any religion. However, she has the same constitutionally-guaranteed freedom of religion as any other Canadian.

Simply saying so, of course, does not make it true.

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#35. Common fallacious argument: Canada has no state religion, therefore the Queen has no religious role in Canada.

This argumentation is common. You can see it at work here by the Monarchist League of Canada: “The Queen has no religious role in Canada, as we do not have a state religion.” http://www.monarchist.ca/en/faqs-en#divine-right

But even political sciences professors fall prey to it. Here is one common formulation of this fallacy:

1. Every country with a state religion and a monarch, has a religious role for that monarch. (often a tacit premise)
2. Canada has no state religion.
3. Therefore Canada has no religious role for the monarch.

Clearly, the argument is invalid. State religion is a sufficient condition, not a necessary condition, for the conclusion.

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#36. Another common fallacy of reasoning from the freedom of religion.

Canada, and the Queen of Canada, defend freedom of religion. Therefore the Queen of Canada is not necessarily Christian.

This argument is especially infuriating because, obviously, there is freedom to worship in England where this is a state religion.

Nothing follows about the Crown of Canada, from the fact that Canada defends the right of people top worship non-Christian religions.

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#37. Fallacious argument from secular nature of the Canadian Government.

Another common argument against the Christian nature of the Queen of Canada relies on the notion that Canada has a secular government, that has succeeded in separating church and state.

The problem with this argument is that it’s circular: the crown is secular, therefore the crown is secular.

The thing is that secularity (secularness?)is a matter of degrees and kinds. The question isn’t whether the Canadian Government is secular. The question is, how secular is it?

Certainly, in the context of Christian expansionism and colonization, and the role of the Catholic and Anglican churches in “educating heathens”, the Canadian government doesn’t look secular.

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#38. Fallacious argument invoking Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent.

Whenever someone brings up “Defender of the Faith” people often resort to this weird soundbite by Louis St Laurent.

During debate, in 1953, in Canadian Parliament, Louis St Laurent tried to explain why “Defender of the Faith” was retained in the Royal Style and Titles Act:

In our countries [Canada and the other non-British monarchies of the Commonwealth] there are no established churches, but in our countries there are people who have faith in the direction of human affairs by an all-wise Providence; and we felt that it was a good thing that the civil authorities would proclaim that their organization is such that it is a defence of the continued beliefs in a supreme power that orders the affairs of mere men, and that there could be no reasonable objection from anyone who believed in the Supreme Being in having the sovereign, the head of the civil authority, described as a believer in and a defender of the faith in a supreme ruler.

Whenever this is raised, I wonder why this explanation is provided outside of context. Why is not the rest of his speech included.

The reason is that to do so would be revealing. Consider for example, what else St. Laurent said:

Her Majesty is now Queen of Canada but she is the Queen of Canada because she is Queen of the United Kingdom and because the people of Canada are happy to recognize as their sovereign the person who is the sovereign of the United Kingdom. It is not a separate office. It is the recognition of the traditional development of our institutions; that our parliament is headed by the sovereign; and that it is the sovereign who … – St. Laurent, Louis (3 February 1953), “Hansard”, written at Ottawa, in Toffoli, Gary; Bousfield, Arthur, Queen of Canada, Toronto: Canadian Royal Heritage Trust, retrieved 7 October 2009

I’m going to find the whole speech and post it.

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#39. The Act of Settlement of 1701 is an important legal and cultural document that helps establish the monarchy of England, and Canada, as Christian.

This is worth reading in full. As far as I can tell so far, this constitutional document lays out many aspects of the Christian nature of the Crown.

Interestingly, it first and foremost excludes Catholics. What is fascinating is that there’s no need to exclude atheists or people of other faiths, because it’s so obvious that this is an outrageous thought.

Also, it refers at length to the shared crown.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Act_of_Settlement_1701

http://www.legislation.gov.uk/aep/Will3/12-13/2/contents

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#40. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms invokes “God” in the preamble.

http://secularalliance.ca/about/policies/canadas-charter-of-rights/

#41. The Canadian National Anthem refers to God.

God keep our land glorious and free!
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

http://www.pch.gc.ca/eng/1359402373291/1359402467746

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#42. The Royal Anthem of Canada is God Save the Queen.

Canada has a Royal Anthem that is performed to the Queen of Canada and other members of the royal family. This song is obviously Christian.

“God save our gracious Queen
Long live our noble Queen,
God save The Queen:
Send her victorious,
Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us:
God save The Queen.
O Lord, our God, arise,
Scatter thine enemies,
And make them fall:
Confound their politics,
Frustrate their knavish tricks,
On thee our hopes we fix:
God save us all.

Thy choicest gifts in store,
On her be pleased to pour;
Long may she reign:
May she defend our laws,
And ever give us cause
To sing with heart and voice
God save The Queen.”

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#43. Other important songs that form part of the Canadian identity are also Christian.

The Maple Leaf Forever is an ode to our flag. It also makes reference to Christian notions:

God save our Queen and Heaven bless
The Maple Leaf forever!

Similarly so for others: http://www.pch.gc.ca/eng/1363696941598/1363697015909

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#44. Idea: every state funeral in the history of Canada has been Christian.

This is listed as a hypothesis because I don’ t know if this list is complete: http://www.pch.gc.ca/eng/1395686546870

#45. Every Prime Minister in the history of Canada has been a Christian.

More needed here. Numbers perhaps?

#46. Major Canadian locations are named after Saints, like the St. Lawrence River.

More needed here.

#47. Major Canadian holidays are Christian, such as Christmas and Easter.

More needed here.

#48. Argument from Constitutional documents.

More needed here.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Canada

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Canadian_constitutional_documents

https://archive.org/stream/constitutionofca00doutuoft/constitutionofca00doutuoft_djvu.txt

#49. The argument from lack of explicit reference to secularity (secularness?) in our constitutional documents.

Canada is a colonial project. It can be understood to part of Christian expansionism. After all, each of the early colonizing countries was Christian. In this sense, Canada was a contest between different Christian empires. The Church of England won. But the Roman Catholics had a strong enough base in Canada, that accommodations were made to keep stability and peace.

Given this history, if the Crown wanted to be identified as non-Christian, it would have to somehow declare itself so. That is, given the legal and cultural inertia of the founding Christian empires, it cannot be assumed that the new Crown is not Christian. It would have explicitly be declared so.

Take, for example, the constitution of India. It is explicitly stated that not only does India have no state religion, but that the government is secular.

Nowhere in the founding Canadian documents is such a declaration made.

#50. The argument from the absence of explicit reference to secularity in government.

This is a very similar line of thought as #49. However, I think it’s fair to count this related phenomenon as seperate evidence about the Crown.

#51. The Royal Union Flag, aka the Union Jack, is Christian and Canadian.

Even thoguht the Royal Union Flag is the flag of the United Kingdom, it has a significant role in the social, political and legal life of Canada.

Many people don’t realize, but the Royal Union Flag is three Christian crosses laid on top of each other:

  • St. Andrew’s Cross
  • St. Patrick’s Cross
  • St. George’s Cross

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#52. The Canadian Flag has Christian components.

I can’t quite bring myself to say that the flag is Christian. I think it maybe fails to pass the threshold of Christianness. But. It’s important to note that it has some serious Christian components. Actually, I found this out by attending a tour of my provincial legislature – the tour guide made special note of this.

But upon further research, I see this information reflected on the Government of Canada, Canadian Heritage site. Basically, the colours in our flag (red and white) represent France and England, because those colours came to represent those countries during the crusades:

History records that in the First Crusade Bohemund I, a Norman lord, had red crosses cut from his mantles and distributed to the 10,000 crusaders, who wore them as a distinctive badge on their garments.

In subsequent crusades, each nation was distinguished by a cross of a different colour. France long had a red cross on its banners while England used a white cross. In the course of history, red and white alternated as the national colours of France and England.

Red and white were approved as Canada’s official colours in the proclamation of her coat of arms in 1921.

In 1957, the colour of the maple leaves on the shield of the Royal Arms of Canada was changed from green on a white ground to red on a white ground in recognition of Canada’s official colours.

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#53. Every single Royal in the history of Canada has been Christian.

There are over 100 kings and queens in the history of Canada who are noteworthy and who “financed excursions, influenced explorations, granted land and titles, and finally visited Canada themselves.” They were all Christian, and they were instrumental in the development of Canada, and the development of the Crown of Canada.

#54. The visual cues of our various official military insignias are Christian.

More needed here.

The Queen is the Colonel in Chief.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_22nd_Regiment) The cap badge of the Van Doos is a beaver with a cross and crown on it’s back.

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#55. The architecture of the prominent government buildings is Christian.

More needed here.

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#56. The Salvation Army is very much a part of the Canadian Military apparatus, and the Salvation Army is Christian.

The Salvation Army self-identifies as Christian. Everyone gets that they’re Christian. But some will wonder if it’s true that the Salvation Army is somehow a part of the Canadian Military. The reason I think it is, is because the Canadian War Museum says so:5

“The Salvation Army has existed in Canada since 1882 and despite its name and military-like organization, does not advocate taking up arms against fellow human beings. On the contrary, among its many peaceful and humanitarian contributions, it has provided Canadian military personnel overseas and in Canada a degree of comfort and civility amidst the loneliness and hardship of military life. In its way the SA has formed an integral part of Canadians’ modern military experiences and has earned for itself full membership in the Canadian military family.”

Dr. Serge Durflinger concludes:

“For almost a century, the Salvation Army provided a small ‘home away from home’ for Canada’s military personnel. The Salvation Army had earned for itself full membership in the Canadian military family.”

See also: http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/salvationarmy/sallyanneng.pdf

#57. The History of the Red Cross and the emblems of the Red Cross is actually really interesting and relevant.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Red_Cross_and_Red_Crescent_Movement#History_of_the_emblems

http://www.ucalgary.ca/hic/issues/vol5/1

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#58. The poem, In Flanders Fields, a crucial part of Canadian Heritage, is a set in a distinctly Christian context.

http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/history/first-world-war/mccrae

http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/history/first-world-war/road-to-vimy-ridge/vimy1a

#59. Many aspects of World War I, are related to Canada’s identity as a Christian nation.

Consider this painting, commissioned by the military. http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/canvas/1/cwd326e.shtml

http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/propaganda/poster19_e.shtml

http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2014/june/wwi-philip-jenkins-great-and-holy-war-review.html

#60. The history of the Canadian Memorial Church demonstrates the Christian nature of the Crown.

http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/memorials/canada/church

“Canadian Memorial also bears the distinction of housing the only other copies of the Books of Remembrance outside of Ottawa. The Books of Remembrance contain the names of all Canadians who served and died in World War I, II and the Korean War. These books are available to the public. Please contact our office for viewing. For more information on Canada’s role in the war and the veterans that served, visit the National Site.”

Building History

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#61. The Book of Remembrance is Christian.

The Book of Remembrance sits atop an altar decorated with angels. On the case that houses it, is an inscription, taken from Ephesians 6:13:

“Take unto you the whole armour of god that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day and having done all to stand.”

The books are illuminated in a manner that is probably very Christian. I myself haven’t seen the manuscripts. But here’s a few photos I could find from around.

http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhh-dhp/nic-inm/sm-rm/mdsr-rdr-eng.asp?PID=8303
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Books_of_Remembrance_%28Canada%29

The Book of Remembrance is held in two locations. The first is the Memorial Chamber in the Peace and Victory Tower, and the second is the Canadian Memorial Church in Vancouver. The Memorial Chamber, in Ottawa, is a kind of Christian temple with an altar. To enter you must pass under the Memorial Cross.

The altar itself has a very prominent inscription from John Bunyan’s “The Pilgrim’s Progress,” a Christian allegory:

“My marks and scars I carry with me, to be a witness for me that I have fought His battles, who now will be my Rewarder; so he passed over, and all the trumpets sounded for him on the other side.”

The Memorial Chamber has stained glass windows, “cusped arches and fan-vaulted ceiling create an atmosphere more in keeping with the memorial chapel of a cathedral.”6

http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/memorials/canada/memchamb
http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/memorials/books
https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/phil-white/26/96a/305

#62. The Peace Tower, a symbol of the Nation and the government, and possibly the Crown, is Christian.

The Peace Tower is actually the Victory and Peace Tower. Add notes from zip drive here…

This is one of the most interesting sections, in part because so few Canadians see the Peace Tower as Christian.

http://www.tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca/collineduparlement-parliamenthill/batir-building/centre/tour-tower/tour-tower-eng.html

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#63. The argument from the absence of other religious icons and signifiers.

Many of the bits of evidence that I’ve presented relate to the presence of Christian signs and icons on various relevant government and Crown materials.

However, equally important are the absence of alternative religious icons on those materials. If, for example, the mace in the House of Commons had a Khanda on it, then the mace would have multiple religious symbols and it would raise reasonable questions about it’s Christian nature. The fact that the mace has no alternate religious symbols on it, tells me that it’s Christian.

This absence of alternate religious symbols is widespread. It is, in short, by design. The absence is part of the structure of the relevant government and Crown materials.

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Things I need to review or elaborate on:

Here’s the queen unveiling the a brand new window Rideau Hall. It’s obviously Christian.

http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/Senate/jubilee/window-e.htm

World War I war monument in Victoria is Christian.

In the years immediately following World War I, there were four war monuments built in Canada. One of them is in Victoria in Ross Bay Cemetery.

The Victoria Monument at Ross Bay Cemetery on Vancouver Island commemorates those who were lost or buried at sea in the Pacific Ocean. It stands in the section set aside as a military cemetery and laid out in accordance with the design guidelines established by the IWGC. This is one of many such cemeteries across the country, where servicemen and women who died in Canada from injuries suffered in the First and Second World Wars are interred.7

  1. https://lagassep.wordpress.com/2013/07/28/the-crown-the-sovereign-and-elizabeth-ii/
  2. See also Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, page 274.
  3. This point is also repeated by John McDonough, 1979, Canadian Parliamentary Review. http://www.revparl.ca/english/issue.asp?param=89&art=336
  4. Not universally “seen” – it’s important to note the perspectives of some Indigenous people.
  5. http://www.cmhg.gc.ca/html/search-eng.asp?btnGo=Search&osubject=&ss=1&Ntt=christian&Ntk=siResource&Ntx=mode%2Bmatchall&subject=&resourcetype=&organization=&btnGo=Search
  6. Public Works and Government Services of Canada. http://www.tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca/collineduparlement-parliamenthill/batir-building/centre/tour-tower/sc-mc-eng.html
  7. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/monuments-of-the-first-and-second-world-wars/

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